For more than four decades, Fenwick & West LLP has helped some of the world’s most recognized companies become, and remain, market leaders. From emerging enterprises to large public corporations, our clients are leaders in the technology, life sciences and cleantech sectors and are fundamentally changing the world through rapid innovation.  MORE >

Fenwick & West was founded in 1972 in the heart of Silicon Valley—before “Silicon Valley” existed—by four visionary lawyers who left a top-tier New York law firm to pursue their shared belief that technology would revolutionize the business world and to pioneer the legal work for those technological innovations. In order to be most effective, they decided they needed to move to a location close to primary research and technology development. These four attorneys opened their first office in downtown Palo Alto, and Fenwick became one of the first technology law firms in the world.  MORE >

From our founding in 1972, Fenwick has been committed to promoting diversity and inclusion both within our firm and throughout the legal profession. For almost four decades, the firm has actively promoted an open and inclusive work environment and committed significant resources towards improving our diversity efforts at every level.  MORE >

FLEX by Fenwick is the only service created by an AmLaw 100 firm that provides flexible and cost-effective solutions for interim in-house legal needs to high-growth companies.  MORE >

Fenwick & West handles significant cross-border legal and business issues for a wide range of technology and life sciences who operate internationally..  MORE >

At Fenwick, we are proud of our commitment to the community and to our culture of making a difference in the lives of individuals and organizations in the communities where we live and work. We recognize that providing legal services is not only an essential part of our professional responsibility, but also an excellent opportunity for our attorneys to gain valuable practical experience, learn new areas of the law and contribute to the community.  MORE >

Year after year, Fenwick & West is honored for excellence in the legal profession. Many of our attorneys are recognized as leaders in their respective fields, and our Corporate, Tax, Litigation and Intellectual Property Practice Groups consistently receive top national and international rankings, including:

  • Named Technology Group of the Year by Law360
  • Ranked #1 in the Americas for number of technology deals in 2015 by Mergermarket
  • Nearly 20 percent of Fenwick partners are ranked by Chambers
  • Consistently ranked among the top 10 law firms in the U.S. for diversity
  • Recognized as having top mentoring and pro bono programs by Euromoney


We take sustainability very seriously at Fenwick. Like many of our clients, we are adopting policies that reduce consumption and waste, and improve efficiency. By using technologies developed by a number of our cleantech clients, we are at the forefront of implementing sustainable policies and practices that minimize environmental impact. In fact, Fenwick has earned recognition in several areas as one of the top US law firms for implementing sustainable business practices.  MORE >

At Fenwick, we have a passion for excellence and innovation that mirrors our client base. Our firm is making revolutionary changes to the practice of law through substantial investments in proprietary technology tools and processes—allowing us to deliver best-in-class legal services more effectively.   MORE >

Mountain View Office
Silicon Valley Center
801 California Street
Mountain View, CA 94041

San Francisco Office
555 California Street
12th Floor
San Francisco, CA 94104

Seattle Office
1191 Second Avenue
10th Floor
Seattle, WA 98101

New York Office
1211 Avenue of the Americas
32nd Floor
New York, NY 10036

Shanghai Office
Unit 908, 9/F, Kerry Parkside Office
No. 1155 Fang Dian Road
Pudong New Area, Shanghai 201204
P.R. China
+86 21 8017 1200

Options for Obtaining International Patent Protection

This memo outlines various options and costs for obtaining patent protection outside the U.S. Please note that these cost estimates are approximate and are dependent upon many factors, including the complexity and length of the application, the number of claims, the duration and extent of the prosecution, current exchange rates, and fees charged by foreign authorities, translators and counsel.

Determine Where Patent Protection is Desired

Nearly every country has its own patent system, and patents issued by any one country are typically enforceable only within the borders of that country. A patent on a widget issued by the United States Patent and Trademark Office (USPTO), for example, cannot be used to prevent a German company from selling the German‐made widget in Germany or in any country other than the U.S.

In deciding whether to file international applications, pertinent factors include where others might be expected to manufacture competing goods, where substantial sales of the patented product are expected, and where enforcement of patent rights is likely to be cost effective.

Although every patent applicant has different interests, the countries in which our clients most often file include Australia, Canada, China, Europe (which is treated as a single country for examination purposes), Japan and Korea.

An additional consideration is the potential loss of secrecy surrounding the application that results from international filing. An application originally filed only in the U.S. is not required to be published unless and until it matures into a granted patent. If, however, the subject matter of that application is filed outside of the U.S., both the U.S. and the foreign application(s) will be published while they remain pending, and the complete file histories of the applications will be available to the public. In addition to signaling the public as to the company’s patent strategy, the publication will also result in the loss of any trade secret protection for the published subject matter.

International Filing Options

Under the widely adopted Paris Convention, a patent application filed in another country can benefit from the earlier U.S. application’s filing date. That is, the foreign application will be treated for purposes of searching the prior art as though it had been filed in the foreign country on the same day as was the U.S. application. The treaty requires that any foreign applications be filed within one year of the original filing.

File Directly in National Patent Offices

One option is to file a patent application directly in the patent office of a selected country. Examination by that country’s patent office can be requested immediately, which may result in a quickly issued patent. This approach is typically most helpful when only a small number of countries are of interest, because the filing fees are due immediately and may be large. In addition, because each patent office will examine each application independently, the claims that issue in each of the different countries may differ substantially from each other.

The cost of filing a patent application in a national patent office ranges from about $3,000 to $11,000 per country, including attorney fees and translation costs. Japan is typically among the more expensive countries in which to file an application, and Australia and Canada are typically among the least expensive. These costs are for filing a patent application, and not for obtaining a patent, or maintaining the patent application and eventual issued patent. These additional costs occur over a period of years following filing as the application is prosecuted in each country. In some countries, maintenance fees must be paid on a yearly or bi‐yearly basis while the application is pending, and these fees can be quite expensive, ranging from hundreds to even thousands of dollars over the life of an application and issued patent.

File a Patent Cooperation Treaty Application

An alternative to the direct national (or regional) filings described above is a filing under the Patent Cooperation Treaty (PCT). The PCT is an enhancement to the Paris Convention, and the same filing deadline applies—a PCT application must be filed within one year of an original filing to claim the benefit of the earlier priority date. As with the Paris Convention, almost every major country is a signatory to the PCT. Of the few countries that are not signatories, the most notable is Taiwan.

A PCT application is examined by a search authority chosen by the applicant (typically the USPTO, the European Patent Office (EPO), Korean Intellectual Property Office (KIPO), or Chinese Patent Office (SIPO)). Following the search, the applicant has the option of providing a written response and amending the claims. At the conclusion of this process, the applicant designates individual countries or regional offices in which to proceed with prosecution. The designated offices receive and review the proceedings from the international phase, and often use the international search as a basis for their own examination. Importantly, the application still has to be prosecuted separately in each national office, and the individual patent offices are not bound by the findings from the international phase.

A PCT application provides a number of advantages, including the deferral of national filing fees and translation costs and a more consistent examination across different patent offices. The timeline of the PCT process allows an applicant to wait until 30 months (or longer, in some countries) before having to decide on specific countries in which to file. In addition, the prior art search and examination report prepared by the PCT search and examination authorities allow the applicant to make a more informed choice about whether and where to proceed. And although the national patent offices are not required to adhere to findings made during the international phase, in practice examiners tend to rely extensively on those findings, which affords the applicant the opportunity to make similar amendments and arguments in multiple countries, reducing the overall cost.

Including legal fees, the cost of filing a PCT application usually ranges from $3,000‐$5,000, depending on which searching authority is chosen and the number of pages in the application. If the applicant chooses to file a response and amendments following the international search report, additional costs typically ranging from $1,500‐$4,000 will be incurred.

Because not all countries are signatories to the PCT, please check this list prior to filing and let us know if there are countries of interest to you (including Taiwan) that are not included in the PCT. Protection can be obtained in those countries by filing direct national applications as described earlier.

Filing in Europe

Some countries have agreed amongst themselves to have a single patent authority examine applications on behalf of all of the member countries. Most notable of these Regional Patent Offices is the European Patent Office (EPO). A single EPO application (filed either directly or via the Patent Cooperation Treaty), is examined by a central office on behalf of up to 38 European countries. Once the EPO finds a patent application to be allowable, the applicant can bring the patent into force by paying a grant fee (and usually a translation fee) in any or all of the 38 countries.

The EPO examines applications on behalf of the following countries: Albania, Austria, Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, Czech Republic, Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Greece, Germany, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Liechtenstein, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malta, Monaco, Netherlands, Norway, Poland, Portugal, Romania, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Slovenia, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland, Turkey, and United Kingdom.

If you are interested in obtaining protection in more than a single European country, it typically makes sense to file in the EPO rather than in the countries individually.

For additional information and specific legal advice, please contact us.​​